GSSP Table - Mesozoic Era

Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP)
Ages from "Geologic Time Scale 2020" by F.M. Gradstein, J.G. Ogg, M.D. Schmitz and G.M. Ogg, (2020, Elsevier).

Cenozoic Era Mesozoic Era Paleozoic Era Precambrian All Periods
Stage Age (Ma) GTS 2020 GSSP Location Latitude, Longitude Boundary Level Correlation Events Status Reference
Cretaceous System
Upper Cretaceous Series
Maastrichtian Stage 72.2 ± 0.2 Tercis les Bains, Landes, France 43.6795°N 1.1133°W level 115.2 on platform IV of the geological site at Tercis les Bains Mean of 12 biostratigraphic criteria of equal importance. Closely above is FAD of ammonite Pachydiscus neubergicus. Boreal proxy is FAD of belemnite Belemnella lanceolata. Ratified 2001 Episodes 24/4, p. 229 -238, 2001
Campanian Stage 83.7 ± 0.5 Bottaccione Gorge Section at Gubbio, Umbria-Marche Basin, Italy 43.3627°N 12.5828°E level 221.53 m in the Bottaccione Gorge Section at Gubbio, Umbria-Marche Basin, Italy Base of Chron C33r Ratified 2022 Episodes 46/3, p. 451 – 490, 2023
Santonian Stage 85.7 ± 0.2 Olazagutia, Northern Spain 42.8681°N 2.1944°W at 94.4m in the eastern border of the "Cantera de Margas" quarry, Olazagutia, Spain Inoceramid bivalve FAD Platyceramus undulatoplicatus Ratified 2013 Episodes 37/1, p. 2-13, 2014
Coniacian Stage 89.4 ± 0.2 Salzgitter-Salder Section in northern Germany 52.1243°N 10.3295°E base of Bed 46 in the Grauweisse Wechselfolge of the Salzgitter-Salder Section in northern Germany Inoceramid bivalve FAD Cremnoceramus deformis erectus Ratified 2021 Episodes 45/2. p. 181 - 220, 2022
Turonian Stage 93.9 Pueblo, Colorado, USA 38.2822°N 104.7275°W base of Bed 86 of the Bridge Creek Limestone Member Ammonite FAD Watinoceras devonense Ratified 2003 Episodes 28/2,p. 93 - 104, 2005
Cenomanian Stage 100.5 Mount Risou, Hautes-Alpes, France 44.3925°N 5.5119°E 36 meters below the top of the Marnes Bleues Formation on the south side of Mont Risou Planktonic foraminifer FAD Thalmanninella globotruncanoides Ratified 2002 Episodes 27/1, p. 21-32, 2004
Lower Cretaceous Series
Albian Stage 113.2 ± 0.3 Col de Pré-Guittard, Arnayon, Drôme, France 44.4964°N 5.3114°E 37.4 m above the base of the Marnes Bleues Formation and 40 cm above the base of the Niveau Kilian Marker Bed near Col de Pré-Guittard. Planktonic foraminiferan FAD Microhedbergella renilaevis Ratified 2016 Episodes 40/3, p. 177-188. 2017
Aptian Stage 121.4 ± 0.6 candidate is Gorgo a Cerbara, Piobbico, Umbria-Marche, central Italy Magnetic -- base of Chron M0r; near FAD of Paradeshayesites oglanlensis ammonite zone
Barremian Stage 126.5 ± 0.7 candidate is Río Argos near Caravaca, Murcia Province, Spain Ammonite FAD Taveraidiscus hugii - Spitidiscus vandeckii group
Hauterivian Stage 132.6 ± 0.6 La Charce village, Drôme Province, southeast France base of Bed 189 of La Charce Section. Ammonite FAD of genus Acanthodiscus Ratified 2019 Episodes 44/2, p. 129 - 150, 2021
Valanginian Stage 137.7 ± 0.5 candidate near Caravaca Spain Calpionellid FAD Calpionellites darderi
Berriasian Stage 143.1 ± 0.6 candidate: Vocontian Basin of SE France, a section at Tré Maroua (Hautes -Alpes) Base of Calpionella alpina Subzone, middle of magnetozone M19n.2n
Jurassic System
Upper Jurassic Series
Tithonian Stage 149.2 ± 0.7 candidates are Mt. Crussol or Canjuers (SE France) or Swabia, Germany Near base of Hybonoticeras hybonotum ammonite zone and lowest occurrence of Gravesia genus, and the base of magnetic polarity Chron M22An
Kimmeridgian Stage 154.8 ± 0.8 Flodigarry (Isle of Skye, NW Scotland) 57.6000°N 6.2000°W upper part of Bed 35 of the Staffin Shale Formation, 1.25±0.01 m below the base of Bed 36 in block F6 in the foreshore at Flodigarry. Ammonite FAD Pictonia flodigarriensis, Prorasenia bowerbanki and Pictonia (Triozites) Ratified 2021 Episodes 46/2, p.281-307, 2023
Oxfordian Stage 161.5 ± 1 Thuoux Section, SE France Ammonite FAD Brightia thuouxensis
Middle Jurassic Series
Callovian Stage 165.3 ± 1.1 candidates are Pfeffingen (Swabian Alb, SW Germany) and in Russia Ammonite FAD of the genus Kepplerites (Kosmoceratidae) (defines base of Macrocephalites herveyi Zone in sub-Boreal province of Great Britain to southwest Germany)
Bathonian Stage 168.2 ± 1.2 Ravin du Bès, Bas-Auran area, Alpes de Haute Provence, France 43.9606°N 6.3153°E base of limestone bed RB07 Ammonite FAD Gonolkites convergens (defines base of Zigzagiceras zigzag Zone) Ratified 2008 Episodes 32/4, p. 222 - 248, 2009
Bajocian Stage 170.9 ± 0.8 Murtinheira Section, Cabo Mondego, Portugal 40.1992°N 8.9042°W base of Bed AB 11 Ammonite FAD Hyperlioceras mundum, Hyperlioceras furcatum, Braunsina aspera, and Braunsina elegantula Ratified 1996 Episodes 20/1, p.16 - 22, 1997
Aalenian Stage 174.7 Fuentelsaz, Spain 41.1708°N 1.8333°W base of Bed FZ 107 Ammonite FAD Leioceras opalinum and Leioceras lineatum Ratified 2000
Lower Jurassic Series
Toarcian Stage 184.2 ± 0.3 Ponta do Trovao, Peniche (Portugal) 39.3708°N 9.3853°W base of micritic limestone bed 15e in the uppermost Lemede Formation Ammonite FAD of Dactylioceras (Eodactylioceras) simplex co- occurring with D. (E.) pseudocommune and D. (E.) polymorphum Ratified 2014 Episodes 39/3, p. 460 - 481, 2016
Pliensbachian Stage 192.9 ± 0.3 Wine Haven, Robin Hood's Bay, Yorkshire Coast, England 54.4069°N 0.4975°W base of Bed 73b Ammonite association of Bifericeras donovani and Apoderoceras sp. Ratified 2005 Episodes 29/2, p. 93-106, 2006
Sinemurian Stage 199.5 ± 0.3 East Quantoxhead, SW England 51.1909°N 3.2364°W 0.90 m above the base of Bed 145 Ammonite FAD Vermiceras quantoxense, Vermiceras palmeri Ratified 2000 Episodes 25/1, p. 22-28, 2002
Hettangian Stage 201.4 ± 0.2 Kuhjoch section, Tyrol, Austria 47.4833°N 11.5306°E 5.80 m above the base of the Tiefengraben Member of the Kendelbach Formation Ammonite FAD of Psiloceras spelae tirolicum Ratified 2010 Episodes 36/3, p.162-198, 2013
Triassic System
Upper Triassic Series
Rhaetian Stage 205.7 ± 0.4 Candidates are Pizzo Mondello, Sicily (Italy) and Steinbergkogel, Austria Near FAD of conodonts Misikella posthernsteini s.s. or Misikella posthernsteini s.l.
Norian Stage 227.3 ± 0.4 Candidates are Black Bear Ridge in British Columbia (Canada) and Pizzo Mondello, Sicily (Italy) Base of Stikinoceras kerri ammonoid zone and near FAD of conodont Metapolygnathus communisti group, or top of M. parvus subzone , or FAD of bivalve Halobia austriaca
Carnian Stage 237 Prati di Stuores, Dolomites, Italy 46.5269°N 11.9303°E base of marly limestone bed SW4, 45m from base of San Cassiano Formation FAD ammonoid Daxatina canadensis, near conodont FAD "Paragondolella" polygnathiformis noah. Just above magnetic polarity zone S2n and above the maximum flooding surface of Sequence Lad 3 of Hardenbol et al (1998). Ratified 2008 Albertina 36, p. 78 - 97, 2007; Episodes, 35/3, p. 414 - 430
Middle Triassic Series
Ladinian Stage 241.5 Bagolino, Province of Brescia, Northern Italy 45.8193°N 10.4710°E base of a 15 - 20cm thick limestone bed overlying a distinctive groove ("Chiesense groove") of limestone nodules in a shaly matrix, located about 5m above the base of the Buchenstein Beds Ammonite FAD Eoprotrachyceras curionii (base of the E. curionii zone). Conodont FAD Budurovignathus praehungaricus is in the uppermost Anisian. Ratified 2005 Episodes 28/4, p. 233-244, 2005
Anisian Stage 246.7 ± 0.2 Candidate section at Desli Caira (Dobrogea, Romania); significant sections in Guizhou Province (China) and South Primorye (Russia) 45.0742°N 28.8022°E In Section B, the GSSP level will be either the FAD of conodont Chiosella timorensis at the base of Bed GR7 at ca. 7 m; OR the base of magnetozone MT1n at the 5.7 m level. Conodont FAD Chiosella timorensis or base of magnetic polarity MT1n Anticipated 2016 Albertiana 36, 2007.
Lower Triassic Series
Olenekian Stage 249.9 ± 0.2 Candidates Mud (Muth) village, Spiti valley, India, or Chaohu, China 0.0000°N 0.0000°E base of Bed 13A-2, about 4.8m up in Mikin Formation., Section M04 (~4000 m elevation Conodont FAD Novispathodus waageni, just above base of Rohillites rohilla ammonite zone, and below lowest occurrence of Flemingites and Euflemingites ammonite genera. Within a prominent positive Carbon-13 peak, and just above widely recognizable sequence boundary. Anticipated 2016 Albertiana 36, 2007.
Induan Stage 251.9 ± 0.3 Meishan, Zhejiang Province, China 31.0798°N 119.7058°E base of Bed 27c in the Meishan D Section Conodont FAD Hindeodus parvus Ratified 2001 Episodes 24/2, p. 102 - 114, 2001