from: Dallmann. W.K. (ed.). Svalbard lithostratigraphic lexicon
1.1 About this site
1.2 Committee on the Stratigraphy of Svalbard: Organisation and purpose
1.3 How to use this site – important user information
1.3.1 Main objectives of this site
1.3.2 Organisation of the site
1.3.3 Use of ID numbers and quotation marks
1.3.4 Stratigraphic tables and applied ages
1.3.5 Type localities and type sections
1.3.7 Correlations with the geology of the Barents Sea Shelf
1.3.8 Change of place-name segments
1.3.9 Lower boundary definitions and descriptions of geological units
1.3.10 Notes on references
1.3.11 Explanations of place names
1.3.12 Transliteration of Russian names and references
1.4 Outline of the geological history of Svalbard
1.4.1 Tectonic setting
1.4.2 Pre-Old Red
1.4.3 Old Red (Devonian)
1.4.4 Late Palaeozoic
1.4.7 Cenozoic and Quaternary volcanic activity
1.1 About this siteFor the last 15 years or so, Norwegian geologists have been working on the registration and regulation of stratigraphic nomenclature for geological units in Norway. The need for registration and proper definition of stratigraphic names in a central database had long been obvious. With the increase of geological knowledge and literature, the amount of imprecise geological unit names was growing rapidly. Imprecise names in this sense are understood as those not welldefined, or not used according to previously published definitions, or with definitions that are problematic in relation to more recent understanding of the regional geological framework.
A formalisation of the nomenclature was needed in order to distinguish between formally established unit names, informal working names, and traditional names that were not defined according to modern requirements. Especially with the onset of oil exploration on the Norwegian continental shelves, where insufficient geographical names are available, the variety of names grew dramatically, threatening to form a jungle impenetrable for the average, non-initiate scientist.
In 1982, the Norwegian Committee on Stratigraphy (Norsk Stratigrafisk Komité, NSK) was established by the Norwegian Council of Geology (Norsk Geologiråd). The committee consists of representatives of all major Norwegian geological institutions and oil companies, as well as a representative of the Norwegian Language Council (Norsk språkråd). The committee's first main task consisted of establishing rules and recommendations for naming geological units in Norway, based on international agreements, but specially aimed at Norwegian conditions. This project was successfully completed with the publication of "Rules and recommendations for naming geological units in Norway" in Norwegian (Nystuen 1986) and, subsequently, in English (Nystuen 1989).
The second main task was to establish a database at the Norwegian Geological Survey (Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse, NGU) in Trondheim, where all geological unit names are to be registered. The number of names registered and defined there is considerable by now. Newly established names have to undergo an approval procedure through NSK prior to their publication in Norwegian journals in order to ensure their accordance with the nomenclature rules, a measure not always appreciated, but generally accepted by individual authors.
In Svalbard, the history of geological names is unique, due to the pronouncedly international research carried out on the archipelago. Geologists from Norway and the Soviet Union, two of the main active nations, tried to communicate as much as possible for many years, but the political situation did not always permit sufficient and fast enough exchange of information. In places, different stratigraphic schemes developed in the respective countries. Geologists from other countries, especially the United Kingdom and Poland, also made significant contributions to the geological exploration of Svalbard, and also to the increasing numbers of unit names.
To avoid confusion without being able to offer immediatesupport, NSK initially considered names from Svalbard published prior to the publication of the "Rules and recommendations for naming geological units in Norway" (1986), as formal ones. Dissatisfaction with the situation, notably at the Norwegian Polar Institute which is responsible for the geological mapping programme in Svalbard, led to the establishment of the Committee on the Stratigraphy of Svalbard (Stratigrafisk Komité for Svalbard, SKS) in 1990. SKS gathered representative stratigraphers from the major research environments with interest in the subject and placed itself under the umbrella of NSK. The aim of SKS was (a) to collect and define all names ever given to rocks in Svalbard and to register them in the NSK database, and (b) to work out and recommend a formalised lithostratigraphic nomenclature for Svalbard's bedrock, where superfluous names are rejected and, where considered necessary, new names are added.
A helpful step on the way was the lexicon "Stratigrafičeskij Slovar' Špicbergena" edited by Gramberg, Krasil'ščikov and Semevskij and published in Russian in 1990, which covers the major part of previously published unit names with short explanations. SKS edited an English translation (Dallmann & Mørk, eds., 1991).
Compilation of the material presented in the present volume was eventually finished in 1997, and the resulting recommendations approved by NSK in 1995-1998. It is the first of two planned volumes covering the entire bedrock stratigraphy of Svalbard's land areas. The present volume starts with the Carboniferous system, or in places, where sedimentary troughs of mainly Carboniferous age started to develop earlier, with the latest Devonian (Famennian). The second volume is intended to cover the Devonian (more precise: Old Red) and Pre-Old Red basement stratigraphy. The reason for this subdivision is twofold: First, the presentation of the Devonian is more similar to that of the older rocks, with many informal unit names and the general lack of logged type sections, in contrast to the Upper Palaeozoic and younger strata. Second, ongoing mapping projects in the Devonian of Svalbard indicate that many changes of the present nomenclature will be necessary in the near future. Postponing the Devonian to a joint publication with the older stratigraphy in a few years' time will probably result in a significantly better and more up-to-date presentation.
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1.2 Committee on the Stratigraphy of Svalbard: Organisation and purposeThe Committee on the Stratigraphy of Svalbard (Stratigrafisk Komité for Svalbard, SKS) was established by the Norwegian Council of Geology (Norsk Geologiråd) through the Norwegian Committee on Stratigraphy (Norsk Stratigrafisk Komité, NSK). Its aim was primarily defined to elaborate a unified, formal lithostratigraphic nomenclature for the pre-Quaternary bedrock succession of the land areas of Svalbard. The committee's proposals are to be approved by the Norwegian Committee on Stratigraphy prior to their publication.
SKS is composed of working groups (subcommittees) or individuals each being responsible for one lithostratigraphic section or an area. These working groups are consultative to the main committee which is in charge of submitting the proposals to the Norwegian Committee on Stratigraphy.
The member composition hopefully reflects the variety of research groups and exploration companies doing stratigraphic work in Svalbard. Nevertheless, members do not participate on behalf of their affiliation, but on the basis of their own scientific competence.
SKS is obliged to follow the Rules and recommendations for naming geological units in Norway published in Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, Vol. 66, supplem. 1, 1986 (in Norwegian) and Vol. 69, supplem. 2, 1989 (in English).
Composition of the main committee during compilation of the present work:
Winfried Dallmann, chairman (Norwegian Polar Institute, Norway)
Krzysztof Birkenmajer (Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland)
Henning Dypvik (University of Oslo, Norway)
David Gee [University of Uppsala, Sweden - participate in work related to the Pre-Old Red or Old Red (mainly Devonian) not treated in this site]
John Gjelberg (Norsk Hydro ASA, Norway)
W. Brian Harland (University of Cambridge, United Kingdom)
Natascha Heintz [University of Oslo, Norway - participate in work related to the Pre-Old Red or Old Red (mainly Devonian) not treated in this site]
Audun Hjelle [Norwegian Polar Institute, Norway - participate in work related to the Pre-Old Red or Old Red (mainly Devonian) not treated in this site]
Hilde Keilen (Saga Petroleum ASA, Norway)
Aleksandr A. Krasil'ščikov [Polar Marine Geological Expedition, PMGRĖ , Russia - participate in work related to the Pre-Old Red or Old Red (mainly Devonian) not treated in this site]
Atle Mørk (IKU Petroleum Research, Norway)
Jenø Nagy (University of Oslo, Norway)
Arvid Nøttvedt (Norsk Hydro ASA , Norway)
Yoshihide Ohta [Norwegian Polar Institute, NP, Norway - participate in work related to the Pre-Old Red or Old Red (mainly Devonian) not treated in this site]
Tatjana M. Pčelina (VNIIOkeangeologija, Russia)
Ron Steel (University of Bergen, Norway; now University of Wyoming, USA)
David Worsley (Saga Petroleum ASA, Norway)
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1.3 How to use this site – important user information
1.3.1 Main objectives of this site
1 if first letter in a word or after a vowel;
2 ий sometimes transcribes "y" in English;
3 in bibliographic transliteration: "ch"
Fig. 1-02: Geological overview map of Svalbard and the western Barents Sea Shelf, showing the positions of major tectonic elements. Offshore data are mainly from Sigmond (1992); faults north of the Bjarmeland platform are added from unpublished data (Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, 1998) and refer to the top Permian level. The indicated type wells refer to Mesozoic offshore formations defined in Mesozoic Chapter.
Fig. 1-03: Table of post-Caledonian tectonic events and character of sedimentation in Svalbard. The absolute age scale refers to Haq & van Eysinga (1987).
Fig. 1-04: Geological overview map of Svalbard showing lithostratigraphic groups. Legend for symbols used on all maps.
Fig. 1-05: Overview map of Svalbard showing major structural elements. Legend for symbols used on all maps.
Fig. 1-06: Map of Svalbard showing names of major geographical features and an index of detailed maps.